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Lagos State

Lagos State is the smallest state in Nigeria in terms of land area, but has the most dynamic population, representing practically all of the country’s ethnic groups. The 2006 National Population and Housing Census (NPC) reported a population of 9,113,605 (4,719,125 males and 4,394,480 females), making Lagos State the second most populated state in Nigeria.

Applying the annual growth rate of 3.2% reported by NPC in 2006[1], the 2015 estimated population of Lagos State is 12,252,970. However, according to Lagos State, the state had a population of 17.6 million in 2006 and 20.4 million in 2011, and an annual population growth rate of 8% [2].

Almost all of the population of Lagos resides in urban locations (92%) [3]. Lagos State experiences a high level of rural-urban migration, and a large influx of people from other states in search of economic opportunities. The city of Lagos is one of the most densely populated and fastest growing cities in the world [4], with more than 100 slum communities [5]. Based on the World Bank’s internationally common poverty line of US$1.25 per day, 91% of the population of Lagos lives below the poverty line.


In terms of religion and culture, Lagos is a melting pot. Approximately 68% of the population is Christian, and 30% Muslim. The Hausa and Fulani make up 29% of the population, followed by Yoruba (21%), and Igbo (Ibo) [6]. English is the official language, although Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Pidgeon, and Fulani are also spoken [7].

Over the past decade, Lagos state has seen very little change in total fertility rates (TFR) and contraceptive prevalence. The TFR remained at approximately 4 between 2003 and 2013 (see Figure 1).

Modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) among married women in Lagos increased most dramatically between 1990 and 2003 from 16.4% to 24.5%. From 2003 to 2013 the modern CPR ranged between 24.5% and 27.7% (see Figure 2) [8].



A Landscaping Analysis conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2015 by The Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Marie Stopes International Organization Nigeria (MSION), and DKT International Nigeria proposed the following eight solution levers to increase modern contraceptive use in Lagos state in order of priority, based on estimated time to impact, impact on contraceptive use, ease of implementation, and availability of resources.

  1. Conduct targeted multi-channel demand creation and communication campaigns.
  2. Strengthen capacity of Community Health Extension Workers to administer injectables and long acting reversible contraceptives.
  3. Expand access to a full range of contraceptives by integrating private sector health facilities into the State health system.
  4. Integrate family planning with other health services.
  5. Organize clinical outreaches to quickly expand LARC and injectables use to underserved populations.
  6. Accredit Proprietary and Patent Medical Vendors and pharmacists to expand the range of methods provided.
  7. Provide community-based services for underserved populations.
  8. Expand the use of digital technologies to provide correct information, remind clients to return for services, and decrease discontinuation of methods.

[1] Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja : NPC, 2006.

[2] Marie Stopes International Organization Nigeria. Policy Analysis of Family Planning Landscape in Lagos and Kaduna States. Abuja : MSION, 2015.

[3] Douglas, J, Woodman, B, Baruwa, S, Toriola, M, Chatterji, Kinnan, C and Andrew Carmona, A. A Census of Private Health Facilities in Six States of Nigeria. Bethesda : s.n., 2014.

[4],6 Lagos Bureau of Statistics. Household Survey 2010 Edition. Alausa-Ikeja : Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, 2011

[5] Reducing Health Disparities in Lagos State: An Investment Case. Beysolow-Nyanti, S. Lagos : UNICEF, 2012

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NURHI Phase 1 (2009 – 2015)

Phase 1 of NURHI was implemented in six cities (Federal Capital Territory, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, Benin and Zaria). According to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, it contributed to significant increases in contraceptive prevalence in these cities.

NURHI Phase 1 (2009 – 2015)

Phase 1 of NURHI was implemented in six cities (Federal Capital Territory, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, Benin and Zaria).According to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, it contributed to significant increases in contraceptive prevalence in these cities.